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Ottawa Plan by Andrei Val, 2021

Ottawa Plan

by Andrei Val

The history of humankind is a thorny path that starts with a lot of large and small states and ends with a global single state, suggesting that all people have the same citizenship, enjoying a single parliament, a single government, a single legislation system…

Of course, this in turn compels to ask: when and how will many states become one? and what is a requisite for such a transition?

As we analyse human history since the invention of writing systems, the first states and cities, i.e. the history of mankind throughout the last five thousand years, and take into account the qualitative changes in human life that have been occurring over the past 150–200 years, the transition to a global single state is likely to take place in the early 23rd century, i.e. in 180–200 years.

Below are listed several basic requirements for such a transition.

One. About 85–90% of the population of all countries on all continents belong to the so-called “middle class”, i.e. people have obtained school or university education they require to function successfully in modern society; they have access to all the necessary material and informational resources inherent in modern society: food, health care, housing, movement around the planet, news and entertainment. The rest of the world’s population are the super-rich (5%), i.e. the so-called millionaires and wealthier people, as well as people with intellectual and material prosperity levels clearly below those of the middle class (5–10%), for various reasons.

Two. The development of rail, sea, road transport and aviation over the last 150–200 years and their further development in the next 100–150 years, as well as the development of the temporary and permanent housing market in all populated areas of the planet, are requisite for the concept of “total migration”. An overwhelming majority of the world’s population changes their place of residence many times during their lives, either within the same region or within their country, or by emigrating to another country. The total migration will result in the number of people born in and native to a city, region, country being always less than the number of people having moved to a said city, region, country from a different place. This in turn will require laws to be unified as they are the rules of people’s lives.

Three. Similar (close) law systems in all countries, as well as similar (close) law adoption systems in all countries and similar (close) law enforcement systems (courts, prosecutors, police, penitentiary system) in all countries.

Four. The elites of nation states will reach a consensus in the late 22nd and early 23rd century regarding a transition from a four-tier governance system featuring “supranational coordinating global bodies — nation states — regions — municipalities” to a three-tier governance system featuring “global single state — regions — municipalities” and it being possible and essential should a three-tier governance system be more efficient than a four-tier governance system.

How will the world transition to a global single state?

There have been dozens of large states created through bloody wars in history. A low intellectual level (illiteracy) of a large part of the population (as proved by five thousand years of world history, with the period of 1914–1945 as an exception) is one of the preconditions for waging wars. Since the second half of the 19th century, school education has become large-scale and then universal, first in some Western European countries, and second, in the majority of countries all over the world during the 20th century. The rise of school and university education is a boon to an increase in the population’s intellectual level, which in turn sets the stage for democratic processes in individual states; this becomes a bellwether of pacifist people taking office in these countries, i.e. people seeking to resolve conflicts using peaceful and non-military means. The transition from nation states to a global single state will also be reached with peaceful and non-military means, through passing  one or more democratic laws, in particular, arranging Internet polls and a final internet vote taken by citizens.


A federal Anglo-Saxon state to emerge in the second and/or third quarter of the 21st century, comprising seven states: the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, Canada, the United States of America, the Commonwealth of the Bahamas, Australia, New Zealand, is a crucial step attending the creation of a global single state.

For the purposes of this article, we use an expression “British Union” to denote this hypothetical state. The actual name of the state is to be defined when created. 

The British Union, according to the Constitution of the British Union, is a federal state made up of:

Kingdom of England, a special part of the British Union;

states with a Republican state structure (Scotland, Wales, Ontario, Massachusetts, Oklahoma, Dakota United, California, New South Wales, Western Australia, Northern New Zealand and other states);

territories governed in accordance with the laws of the British Union.

The Coordinator of the British Union is the highest civil servant in the British Union, the Commander-in-Chief of the British Union Armed Forces; the Coordinator also forms the Government of the British Union.

The King of England is the head of the Kingdom of England, the head of the British Commonwealth, acting as a national symbol.

The two Houses of the British Union Parliament, together with the Coordinator of the British Union, adopt laws of the British Union, including taxation and budget laws.

The Constitutional Court of the British Union deals with the constitutional arrangements of the British Union.

The High Court of Justice of the British Union deals with civil and criminal proceedings and is the supreme court for all other courts in the British Union.

The states, in accordance with the British Union Constitution and the state constitution, elect a head of state or governor and state parliament; laws adopted cannot conflict with the laws of the British Union.

London, England, is the capital of the British Union.

English is the official language of the British Union.

All citizens of the British Union are equal in the eyes of the law.

Any act aimed at the secession of any part of the British Union, or of one state, or of more than one state, or of one territory, or of more than one territory of the British Union, is an offence and subject to punishment in accordance with the laws of the British Union.


The transition from the seven nation states to the British Union requires several years to complete under the Ottawa Plan (seven steps).

Step 1. Drawing up and executing the Treaty of the British Confederation, which provides for the following:

the goal of the British Confederation is to create the British Union, a single federal state;

establishment of the British Confederation Coordinating Council;

consistent implementation of the steps to create a British Union (set out below).

Step 2. The North American Free Trade Agreement, NAFTA, transforms into the Ottawa Free Trade Agreement (OFTA), comprising seven states of the Confederation and excluding Mexico.

Step 3. Change the borders of the provinces and territories of Canada, also, the unification of the provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island and their transformation into one province of Acadia (the capital of Moncton-Dieppe).

Step 4. Australia and New Zealand uniting into a single federal state, the Union of Australia, comprising the states of New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, Northern Australia, South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania, Northern New Zealand, Southern New Zealand, and territories.

Australian Capital Territory is part of New South Wales. Canberra, the capital of the Union of Australia, is part of New South Wales.

The Union of Australia Constitution provides for a republican Union and state structure with the Union President as head of state, leader of the executive and commander-in-chief of the Union of Australia Armed Forces. There is no mention of the King of England in the Constitution of the Union of Australia.

Step 5. Canada uniting with the Commonwealth of the Bahamas. Adopting the Constitution of Canada, similar to the Constitution of the Union of Australia. Transforming the provinces of Canada and the Commonwealth of the Bahamas into Canadian states. The territory of Nunavut possibly transforming into the State of Nunavut.

Step 6. The Constitutional Assembly of the British Confederation drafting the Constitution of the British Union and the Electoral Act. Setting a date for the election of the Coordinator of the British Union, Senators and Members of Parliament, and determining the work start date. 

Step 7. Electing the Coordinator of the British Union, Senators and Members of Parliament; start of their work. Transforming the British Confederation into the British Union.


The purpose of the British Union is to address several domestic and foreign policy issues.

In domestic policy:

1. Creating a Single National Pass ID System for all citizens of the British Union; creating an electronic database of British Union citizens in order to provide them with legal, financial and other forms of assistance from the British Union Government;

2. Creating a Single National Tax System that is transparent, easy to understand and fair;

3. Reforming elections legislation: establishing a National Electoral Commission, conducting elections at all levels according to uniform rules, updating elections rules regularly, refusing to distort the results of elections in any way; 

4. Developing and adopting the British Union Civil Code and the British Union Code of Civil Procedure (based on the Dutch Civil Code and the Dutch Code of Civil Procedure); employing the British Union Civil Code and the Code of Civil Procedure in the Kingdom of England, all states and all British Union territories;

5. Developing and adopting the British Union Penal Code and the British Union Code of Criminal Procedure (based on the Dutch Penal Code and the Dutch Code of Criminal Procedure), employing the provisions of the British Union Penal Code and Code of Criminal Procedure in the Kingdom of England, all states and all British Union territories; reforming the judiciary: criminal judges can only rule in accordance with the British Union Penal Code; rulings of judges based on the rulings of other judges are only allowed in cases not covered by the British Union Penal Code; lay judges are not allowed to take part in proceedings;

6. Using the International System of Units (SI) (metres, kilograms, degrees Celsius) throughout the British Union, including the territory of the modern United States of America;

7. Introducing uniform road traffic rules throughout the British Union; a phased transition to right-hand traffic in the UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and other territories.

In foreign policy:

1. Ensuring best conditions for economic activities outside the British Union for corporations established by British Union citizens;

2. Eliminating threats to the security of British Union citizens and territory immediately and easily; refusing to station permanent military bases and contingents of the British Union outside the British Union in peacetime, except for the stationing of military bases and contingents of the British Union in Greece, the Hellenic Republic, and as decided by the Security Council of the United Nations;

3. In the last quarter of the 21st century: Kingdom of Denmark, Kingdom of Norway, Kingdom of Sweden, State of Estonia, State of Finland, State of Iceland, State of Kiribati, Territory of Greenland, Territory of the Faroe Islands, Territory of Svalbard, becoming part of the British Union, out of its own volition; the population of the states that have become part of the British Union assimilating and integrating voluntarily.


What would stand in the way of the Ottawa Plan?

The mindset of the population of the seven states will stand in the way of the Ottawa Plan, namely:

citizens’ traditional independence from civil service;

traditional autonomy and separation of local government civil servants from regional and national government civil servants;

traditional separation of regional government civil servants from national government civil servants.

It is the traditional state of “near-anarchy” that stands in the way of solving problems such as crime and urban violence, racial hatred (African Americans’ envy and hatred towards European Americans), religious hatred, illegal migration and others.

The United States of America elite and society face the following threats:

The Democratic Party’s interest in increasing the number of U.S. citizens of Hispanic origin as a result of the legalization of undocumented immigrants from Latin America as they are the electorate of the Democratic Party, and decreasing the percentage of U.S. citizens of European origin because U.S. citizens of European origin are the electorate of the Republican Party;

The Democratic Party’s interest in making sure poor African-American U.S. citizens remain  the electorate of the Democratic Party, and in reducing the number of successful African-American U.S. citizens, since successful African-American U.S. citizens are the electorate of the Republican Party;

The Democratic Party’s interest in increasing the number of gay people, lesbians, transgender people and other sexual-identity-experimenting U.S. citizens as they are the electorate of the Democratic Party, and decreasing the number of heterosexual male and female U.S. citizens, because heterosexual men and women enjoying U.S. citizenship are the electorate of the Republican Party.

The only answer to these problems is in the radical reforms. Democracy must be effective.


When can the Ottawa Plan be implemented?

Let us turn to history, namely, the history of Italy and Germany.

For nearly a thousand years, the territory of present-day Italy and Germany was home to many independent states that fought and lived peacefully, sometimes invaded by foreign armies… 

And in the mid-19th century people everywhere started building railways and industrial plants and sending their children to schools…

In the 1860s,

Vittorio Emanuele II, the charismatic King of Piedmont-Sardinia, together with charismatic Prime Minister Camillo di Cavour, charismatic warlord Giuseppe Garibaldi and many charismatic and uncharismatic others, created the Kingdom of Italy, a nation state for Italians;

Wilhelm I, the charismatic King of Prussia, together with charismatic Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, charismatic military commander Helmuth von Moltke and many charismatic and uncharismatic others created the German Empire, a nation state for Germans. 

Italian unification and the unification of Germany was attended by wars, but there was little resistance; the elites and society of the small Italian and German states accepted the idea of a united Italy and a united Germany.

Now in the early 21st century, the elite and society of the Anglo-Saxon states enjoy television, aviation, the Internet and many other inventions of humankind that did not exist in the 1770s, in the 1860s and in the early 20th century.

Perhaps King William, now Prince William, Duke of Cambridge will initiate the rise of the British Union.

But who is going to help them?

Will they get any help?

If you know the answer to “who?”, then you already know “when”.


The British Union will exist for 150–180 years and then, in the early 23rd century, kingdoms, states and territories of the British Union will be transformed into regions of a global single state. But at the time of the British Union, life for the elite and citizens should be comfortable and safe.


A time to scatter stones and a time to gather stones.

June, 2021

© Andrei Val, 2021

© Andrei Valiuzhenich, 2021


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